Evaporation from the soil surface

Evaporation from the soil surface (“Soil evaporation”) can be calculated by two different approaches in the model: (a) by a more empirical approach based on the Penman-Monteith equation and (b) by a more physically based approach, which is based on an iterative solution of the surface energy balance including both water and heat fluxes at the soil surface. The empirical approach is normally used when the water balance conditions are of major interest. It does not influence the soil surface temperature or heat flow. The iterative solution of the energy balance is recommended when the feedback between temperature and water conditions is of interest. Any of these alternative approaches can be chosen with the switch Evaporation Method. The physically based approach corresponds to the option “Iterative Energy Balance” and is described below under Surface energy balance approach. The other options except for “Not Estimated” applies to the empirical approach and are described under Empirical approach for soil evaporation.


Partitioning of net radiation

Surface energy balance approach

Empirical approach for soil evaporation

Restrictions of soil evaporation

Partitioning of soil evaporation



Viewing Functions

Flow Variables

Auxiliary Variables